Bhatnagar, Shanti Swaroop (1894 –1955) played a significant role along with HomiBhabha, PrasantaMahalanobis, Vikram Sarabhai and others in building of post-independent S&T infrastructure and in the formulation of India’s science and technology policies.Bhatnagar was born in Shahpur, now in Pakistan.He went to England on a research fellowship after competing his Master's Degree in Chemistry in India. He received his DSc from the University College London in 1921. After returning to India, he was awarded a professorship at Benaras Hindu University. He was knighted in 1941 by the British Government as a reward for his research in science. In 1943 he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society. His research interests included emulsions, colloids, and industrial chemistry, but his fundamental contributions were in the field of magneto-chemistry. He used magnetism as a tool to know more about chemical reactions. The Bhatnagar-Mathur interference balance, which he designed along with physicist R.N. Mathur, was later manufactured by a British firm.


Bose, Jagadis Chandra (1858-1937 CE) was born on 30 November 1858, in Myemsingh, now in Bangladesh. He was an excellent teacher, extensively using scientific demonstrations in class. Bose also started doing original scientific work in the area of microwaves, carrying out experiments involving refraction, diffraction and polarization. He developed the use of galena crystals for making receivers, both for short wavelength radio waves and for white and ultraviolet light. Many of the microwave components familiar today - waveguides, horn antennas, polarizers, dielectric lenses and prisms, and even semiconductor detectors of electromagnetic radiation - were invented and used by Bose in the last decade of the nineteenth century. He also suggested the existence of electromagnetic radiation from the Sun, which was confirmed in 1944. Bose then turned his attention to response phenomena in plants. He showed that not only animal but vegetable tissues, produce similar electric response under different kinds of stimuli – mechanical, thermal, electrical and chemical.


Bose, SatyendraNath (1894-1974) was born on January 01, 1894 in Kolkata. SatyendraNath popularly known as SatyenBose, joined Presidency College. He excelled in academics throughout his education – Intermediate, B.Sc. and M.Sc. with applied mathematics. He worked as a lecturer of physics in the Science College of the University of Calcutta (1916-21) and along with MeghnadSaha, introduced postgraduate courses in modern mathematics and physics. In 1921, Bose left Kolkata to become a Reader at the Dakha University. It was during this period that he wrote the famous paper on the statistics of photons. It was named Bose statistics after him and is now an integral part of physics. Paul Dirac, the legendary physicist, coined the term boson for particles obeying these statistics. Apart from this he did theoretical work on the general theory of relativity and also experimental work on crystallography, fluorescence, and thermo-luminescence. Bose returned to Kolkata to become the Khaira Professor of Physics, a post he kept till 1956. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1958, and the Government of India named him a National Professor and awarded him the honor of Padma Vibhushan. He died on 4 February 1974.


Brahmagupta (598–668 CE) was an Indian mathematician and astronomer who wrote many important works on mathematics and astronomy. His best known work is the Brahmasphu?asiddhanta (Correctly Established Doctrine of Brahma), written in 628 in Bhinmal. Its 25 chapters contain several unprecedented mathematical results. Brahmagupta then goes on to give the sum of the squares and cubes of the first n integers. Brahmagupta's Brahmasphu?asiddhanta is the very first book that mentions zero as a number, hence Brahmagupta is considered as the man who found zero. He gave rules of using zero with other numbers. Zero plus a positive number is the positive number etc. In chapter eighteen of his Brahmasphutasiddhanta, Brahmagupta describes operations on negative numbers. He first describes addition and subtraction. Brahmagupta gave the solution of the general linear equation in chapter eighteen of Brahmasphutasiddhanta. Brahmagupta went on to give a recurrence relation for generating solutions to certain instances of Diophantine equations of the second degree such as Nx2 + 1 = y2 (called Pell's equation) by using the Euclidean algorithm. The Euclidean algorithm was known to him as the "pulverizer" since it breaks numbers down into ever smaller pieces. Brahmagupta's most famous result in geometry is his formula for cyclic quadrilaterals. Given the lengths of the sides of any cyclic quadrilateral, Brahmagupta gave an approximate and an exact formula for the figure's area.


 Brhmasphuta-siddhanta is one of the first mathematical books to provide concrete ideas on positive numbers, negative numbers, and zero. He wrote the following rules:


     •  The sum of two positive quantities is positive

     •  The sum of two negative quantities is negative

     •  Solutions of indeterminate quadratic equations (of the type ax² + b = y²).

     •  The sum of zero and a negative number is negative

     •  The sum of zero and a positive number is positive

     •  The sum of zero and zero is zero

     •  The sum of a positive and a negative is their difference; or, if they are equal, zero

     •  In subtraction, the less is to be taken from the greater, positive from positive

     •  In subtraction, the less is to be taken from the greater, negative from negative

     •  When the greater however, is subtracted from the less, the difference is reversed

     •  When positive is to be subtracted from negative, and negative from positive, they must be added together

     •  The product of a negative quantity and a positive quantity is negative

     •  The product of a negative quantity and a negative quantity is positive

     •  The product of two positive, is positive

     •  Positive divided by positive or negative by negative is positive

     •  Positive divided by negative is negative. Negative divided by positive is negative

     •  A positive or negative number when divided by zero is a fraction with the zero as denominator

    •  Zero divided by a negative or positive number is either zero or is expressed as a fraction with zero as numerator and the finite          quantity as denominator

     •  Zero divided by zero is zero