




Bhabha, Homi J.(19091966) was born on 30 October 1909 in a Parsi family of Mumbai. Dr. Bhabha was appointed the first chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission, set up in 1948. He was also responsible for the establishment of two wellknown research institutions, namely the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), and the Atomic Energy Establishment at Trombay , which presently called as the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). As a scientist, he is remembered for deriving a correct expression for the probability of scattering positrons by electrons, a process now known as Bhabha scattering. Bhabha’s discovery of the presence of nuclear particles (which he called mesons) in these showers was used to validate Einstein’s theory of relativity making him world famous. For his significant contributions to the development of atomic energy in India, he is known as the father of India's nuclear program. Under his expert guidance the nation's first atomic reactor 'Apsara' was also commissioned in 1956. Dr. Bhabha received many national and international awards and honours. The Government of India also honoured him with 'Padma Bhushan' in 1954. He passed away in 1966 in a plane crash. 




Bhaskara I (c. 600 – c. 680 CE) was a 7th century Indian mathematician, who was apparently the first to write numbers in the HinduArabic decimal system with a circle for the zero, and who gave a unique and remarkable rational approximation of the sine function in his commentary on Aryabhata's work. This commentary, Aryabhatiyabhasya, written in 629 CE, is the oldest known prose work in Sanskrit on mathematics and astronomy. He also wrote two astronomical works in the line of Aryabhata's school, the Mahabhaskariya and the Laghubhaskariya.
Bhaskara's probably most important mathematical contribution concerns the representation of numbers in a positional system. The first positional representations were known to Indian astronomers about 500. However, the numbers were not written in figures, but in words or allegories, and were organized in verses. For instance, the number 1 was given as moon, since it exists only once; the number 2 was represented by wings, twins, or eyes, since they always occur in pairs; the number 5 was given by the (5) senses. Similar to our current decimal system, these words were aligned such that each number assigns the factor of the power of ten corresponding to its position, only in reverse order: the higher powers were right from the lower ones.


His system is truly positional, since the same words representing, can also be used to represent the values 40 or 400. Quite remarkably, he often explains a number given in this system, using the formula ankairapi ("in figures this reads"), by repeating it written with the first nine Brahmi numerals, using a small circle for the zero . Contrary to his word number system, however, the figures are written in descending valuedness from left to right, exactly as we do it today. Therefore, at least since 629 the decimal system is definitely known to the Indian scientists. Presumably, Bhaskara did not invent it, but he was the first having no compunctions to use the Brahmi numerals in a scientific contribution in Sanskrit. 

Bhaskara II (1114–1185 CE) also known as Bhaskaracharya was born near Vijjadavida ( in modern Karnataka).His main work was the Siddhanta Shiromani, Sanskrit for "Crown of treatises," is divided into four parts called Lilavati, Bijaganita,Grahaganita and Goladhyaya. These four sections deal with arithmetic, algebra, mathematics of the planets, and spheres respectively.
His greatest contribution was proof of Pythagorean theorem, cubic and quartic indeterminate equations, solving indeterminate equations of the form ax² + bx + c = y, x²  ny² = 1, the mean value theorem, properties of zero, estimation of p, inverse rule of three, and rules of 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11, Surds, Kuttaka (for solving indeterminate equations and Diophantine equations) etc.


Bhaskara's work on calculus predates Newton and Leibniz by half a millennium. He is particularly known in the discovery of the principles of differential calculus and its application to astronomical problems and computations. While Newton and Leibniz have been credited with differential and integral calculus, there is strong evidence to suggest that Bhaskara was a pioneer in some of the principles of differential calculus. He was perhaps the first to conceive the differential coefficient and differential calculus.



