Sridhara (c. 870, c. 930 CE) was an Indian mathematician known for two treatises: Trisatika (sometimes called the Patiganitasara) and the Patiganita. He wrote on practical applications of algebra and was one of the first to give a formula for solving quadratic equations. We know of two arithmetical works by him - a fuller work under the title Patiganita and the other a smaller tract called Trisatika, both of which have been edited, and of which a number of manuscripts also exist. For multiplication, he uses a new term pratyutpanna (re-produced) and discusses the kapata-sandhi (door-junction, Gelosia) method which became very popular among later Hindu writers and was transmitted to the West through Arab works. We know from Bhaskara that Sridhara was the discoverer of a method of solving quadratic equations. An application of this method is also preserved in his arithmetic. Sridhara's contemporary Sripati is well known for his arithmetic Ganita-tilaka commented upon by SimhatilakaSuri in the thirteenth Century.


Sushruta, (fl. 800 BCE) was an ancient Indian surgeon and is the author of the book SushrutaSamhita, in which he describes over 300 surgical procedures and 120 surgical instruments and classifies human surgery in eight categories. He lived, taught and practiced his art on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the present day city of Varanasi in North India. Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery." Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the SushrutaSamhita.

A genius who has been glowingly recognized in the annals of medical science. Born to sage Vishwamitra, AcharyaSudhrut details the first ever surgery procedures in SushrutSamhita a unique encyclopedia of surgery. He is venerated as the father of plastic surgery and the science of anesthesia. When surgery was in its infancy in Europe, Sushrut was performing Rhinoplasty (restoration of a damaged nose) and other challenging operations. In the SushrutSamhita, he prescribes treatment for twelve types of fractures and six types of dislocations. His details on human embryology are simply amazing. Sushrut used 125 types of surgical instruments including scalpels, lancets, needles, catheters and rectal speculums; mostly designed from the jaws of animals and birds. He has also described a number of stitching methods; the use of horse's hair as thread and fibers of bark. In the SushrutSamhita, and fibers of bark. In the SushrutSamhita, he details 300 types of operations. The ancient Indians were the pioneers in amputation, caesarian and cranial surgeries. AcharyaSushrut was a giant in the arena of medical science.

Sushruta lays down the basic principles of plastic surgery by advocating a proper physiotherapy before the operation and describes various methods or different types of defects, viz., (1) release of the skin for covering small defects, (2) rotation of the flaps to make up for the partial loss and (3) pedicle flaps for covering complete loss of skin from an area. He has mentioned various methods including sliding graft, rotation graft and pedicle graft. Nasal repair or rhinoplasty has been described in greater detail, which to this day has stood the test of time and is mentioned as the Indian method of rhinoplasty in the books of plastic surgery. Lastly, labioplasty too has received his attention. In short, all the principles of plastic surgery, viz., accuracy, precision, economy, haemostasis and perfection find an important place in Sushruta's writings on this subject.